The Books of Chronicles – an overview

Contents

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Overall information about the books

  • End of the Hebrew Canon
  • Fitting counterpart to Genesis: Adam –> Israel in a foreign land about to return
  • Completed by 400-350 BC (according to genealogy of David in 1 Chr 3)
  • ie roughly coincides with Ezra – Nehemiah reforms
  • Broad framework is creation / restoration

Chronicles – a summary

  • Chronicles is written to answer the question: “We’ve returned from Exile, now what?”. It sets the vision for Israel by:
    • Showing the continuity of post-exile Israel with pre-exile Israel (through the genealogies)
    • Showing what that pre-exile Israel was like, or should have been like, by comparison and contrast.
  • Why does it need to answer this question?
    • They’ve returned from exile, but are under Persian rule
    • They do have:
      • A new temple,
      • The law and the prophets
      • People: Priests from Levi and rulers from Judah (e.g. Zerubbabel the governor)
    • But what does this mean and how does it connect them with God’s promises?
  • Chronicles paints a picture of pre-exile Israel by weaving together a number of important strands of the nation’s history to create a unified picture. The themes constitute the strands while the relationships between the themes constitute the weaving – the unified picture of what Israel should be like.
  • The big themes of interest are: God’s word, king, priest, nation. Also God’s faithfulness is evident throughout.
  • The diagram below shows the prominent relationships between the themes
  • NB Why are the kings “idealised”?. They’re not. Rather, the Chronicler concentrates on those aspects of the kings’ lives that are of special interest to him (above). He shows how the ideal king should act by both comparison and contrast with the lives of the real kings. Hence some kings are shown in a very favourable light (e.g. David, Jehoshaphat) while others are shown in a very unfavourable light (e.g. Ahaz), all for the sake of illustration of the ideal king.

A note about the fulfilment

  • It’s not difficult to see how Jesus fulfils this picture. Just substitute “Jesus” for everything to do with priest and king in the following diagram.
  • This king, Jesus, can conduct priestly duties, because he is both the ideal priest and the ideal king who is perfectly obedient in the sacrifice of himself on the cross. He is the temple, the source of God’s blessing and forgiveness to his people whom he saves and teaches obedience. And what’s more, he is God’s word to us.
  • There are many parallels with the New Testament book of Hebrews.

Quotations to remember

  • 1 Chr 17:10-12 “I declare to you that the LORD will build a house for you: When your days are over and you go to be with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, one of your own sons, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for me” – The interplay of the two houses. God builds the house of David, and the house of David will build the house of God. Also illustrates the faithfulness of God.
  • 2 Chr 6:42 “O LORD God, do not reject your anointed one. Remember the great love promised to David your servant” – said by Solomon at the end of his prayer of dedication of the temple. He has just recounted how the exiles are to pray toward the temple when in a foreign land and God will hear them and forgive them. This would have been very significant for the post-exilic community.
  • 2 Chr 12:1 “After Rehoboam’s position as king was established and he had become strong, he and all Israel with him abandoned the law of the Lord”. Shows how Israel identifies with the king, and how the king abandoning the law is very bad, and how each of the kings has a twofold reign – obedience/blessing followed by rebellion/retribution
  • The whole of chapter 20 is worth remembering, because it intricately brings the themes together of king (victory), priest (temple), word and people. It also reminds us of the salvation story of Exodus. I think it is a very central chapter.
  • 2 Chr 20:20 “Have faith in the Lord you God and you will be upheld; Have faith in his prophets and you will be successful” – important for the people to remember

The prominent themes in Chronicles and the relationships between them

1 Chronicles 1-9 – Genealogies

Important groups amongst the nations

  • Other Shemites
  • Hamites
  • Edomites

Information about tribes

pre# is approx. number of descendants, clans or cities mentioned in 1-8 (mostly before the exile)
post# is the approx. number specifically referred to in chapter 9 (the first resettlers of Jerusalem after the exile)

Tribe pre# post# Special notes Important groups Important individuals
Judah 310 690 The strongest tribe and one from which a ruler came David (king)Solomon

Jehoiachin (Deported to Babylon)

Levi 176 1972 Kohathites (Kohath was son of Levi, ancestor of Aaron, Moses, Miriam)Priests (descendants of Aaron)

Temple musicians

Gatekeepers (amongst resettlers)

Azariah (priest in Solomon’s temple)Aaron

Moses

Miriam

Jehozadak (Deported to Babylon)

Benjamin 126 956 EhudSaul (genealogy is mentioned twice)
Simeon 49
Asher 42
Ephraim 30 Given firstborn rights Joshua
Manasseh 28 East Manasseh first to be exiled
Gad 23
Issachar 17
Reuben 16 Firstborn rights cancelled because he defiled his father’s bed
Naphtali 5
Zebulun 1
Dan 1

Notable emphases or omissions

  • 1:1-4 Cain and Abel omitted
  • 1:43-54 Edom covered extensively
  • 2:10-17 David is given primary place
  • Zebulun and Dan have no genealogies

Historical interest of the author

  • Ancestry
    • Ancestry of the nations (in their “present” form – ie post-exile) – explains emphasis upon Edomites and omission of Cain and Abel (Ch 1)
    • Ancestry of the tribes to the point of exile
  • Special interest in who is the firstborn (word “firstborn” mentioned 24 times, plus transfer of rights of firstborn from Reuben to Joseph’s sons in 5:1-2)
  • Continuity of resettled Israel (ch 9) with pre-exile Israel (chs 2-8)
  • The prominent tribes, both pre- and post- exile
    • Judah – the strong tribe of rulers (chs 2-4)
    • (secondarily) Simeon – also part of the Southern kingdom and restored community along with Judah (ch 4)
    • Levi – the tribe of priests and temple officers (ch 6)
    • Benjamin – the tribe of Saul (ch 8)
    • (secondarily) Benjamin – part of the Southern kingdom and restored community along with Judah
  • Some post-exilic data – Jehoiachin’s line in 3:17-24: the royal line

1 Chr 10-29 – David

Differences between Samuel and Chronicles

Omissions from Samuel

  • 11:1 David’s seven year rule at Hebron – rather the accession is seen as immediate
  • 17:1,10 The Chronicler omits to say the David has rest from his enemies
  • 17:13 No reference to David’s son being “punished with the rod” or “flogged”
  • 18:2 David does not treat the Moabites harshly
  • 19-20 No mention of David’s sin with Bathsheba
  • 21:4 The sinful census is mentioned but nevertheless is abridged in detail

Additions to Samuel

  • 10:13-14 Saul died because he was unfaithful – immediate contrast with David
  • 11-12 List of David’s mighty men greatly expanded beyond Uriah the Hittite (where the Samuel list ends)
  • 13:1-4 David confers with the whole nation in his decision (including priests and Levites) to bring the ark to Jerusalem
  • 16:7-36 David writes a Psalm of thanks
  • 18:8 Part of David’s victory is taking bronze which is later used in the temple
  • 21:6 Levi and Benjamin are exempted from the sinful census
  • 21:28 – 22:1 The Chronicler makes it perfectly clear why he includes the story of the census. He is interested in how the site for the temple was established.

Changes to the account

  • 11:4 “David and all Israel” conquers Jerusalem rather than just “the king and his men”
  • 11-12 List of mighty men moved to beginning of reign
  • 14 Story of the Philistine conquest moved to after the failed attempt to bring the ark to Jerusalem
  • 17:14 David’s son is set over “God’s house” and “God’s kingdom” rather than “David’s house” and “David’s kingdom”
  • 21:5 Bigger numbers in the census – perhaps because of the incomplete nature of the census
  • 21:25 The whole site for the temple is bought for a large amount of money, rather than just the threshing floor and the oxen
  • 22:8-9 David is not just too busy fighting wars to build the temple; he is somehow ceremonially unclean and defiled

God’s faithfulness

  • 17 God makes the promise to David of a throne that will last forever.
  • 21 Even David’s sin leads to the establishment of the temple.

David as idealised Messiah

  • The Chronicler is not trying to deceive! He must be assuming that his readers know Samuel. Rather, he has a theological purpose in mind.
  • 11 David’s seven year reign in Hebron is in the genealogy of 3:4, but omitted from the narrative here.
  • 12:39-40 When David becomes king, massive armies from all tribes flock to support him and engage in a three day feast with him, foreshadowing the Messianic feast. Also 2 Chronicles 7:8-10 has a great feast at the dedication of the temple
  • 17:13 There is no reference to David’s son being “punished with the rod” or “flogged”
  • 19-20 David, at the head of his army, wins decisively.
    • His subordinates are also mighty and win great victories.
  • Very notable omissions from the historical account in Samuel
    • The wars between Saul’s and David’s house
    • The murders of Abner and Ishbosheth
    • David’s sin with Bathsheba
    • The crimes within David’s house: Amnon
    • Absalom’s attempt to depose David
  • 28-29 The succession to Solomon’s reign happens easily. Solomon enjoys the people’s support. There is no mention of:
    • David’s infirmity
    • The rebellion of Adonijah and associated intrigue to secure the succession of Solomon

King and people interaction

  • 11-13 Emphasis again and again is upon the support of “all Israel” for David’s actions:
    • Becoming king
    • Bringing back the ark.
  • 28-29 The succession to Solomon’s reign happens easily: he enjoys the support of the whole nation.

King and priest interaction

  • The ark
    • 13 David tries to bring the ark to Jerusalem.
      • He consults with the priests and Levites (and all Israel) about this decision,
      • He plays music – a Levitical role as established by the genealogy of ch. 6 which mentions the temple musicians
      • HOWEVER, he fails in carrying out the proper priestly duty. The Levites are not properly consecrated. The ark is brought on a cart and is touched. Result – judgment, death, anger on David’s part.
    • 14 In battle, David inquires of God and then has success
    • 15-16 David brings the ark to Jerusalem
      • This time, he inquires of God about the ark and has success (he learned his lesson in chapter 14)
      • He instructs the Levites to consecrate themselves and carry the ark – a proper Levitical function
      • He appoints musicians – a proper Levitical role
      • Nevertheless, he associates himself and all Israel with the Levitical activities
        • He wear priestly clothes
        • He and all Israel are said to bring up the ark and be celebrating
        • He performs sacrifices and blesses the people (16:2)
        • He writes a song for the musicians
  • 17 Note the interplay between the two “houses” – the dynasty and the temple
    • David wants to build a house for God (temple), but God builds a house for David (dynasty)
    • Then David’s house (son) will build God’s house (temple)
    • 17:14 David’s son is set over “God’s house” and “God’s kingdom”
    • Is there a merging of dynasty and temple here? Which is God’s house and which is David’s house?
  • 18 David’s victory wins for him many raw materials to use in the temple
  • 21 David’s sin and temptation by Satan
    • 21:6 Levi is not included in the numbering, and therefore avoids the guilt of the king
    • But the result is a place for the temple – the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite
    • So even David’s sin leads to the establishment of the temple.
  • David is the instigator and planner behind the whole temple
    • The temple is set up as the centre of Israel’s life and is David’s overwhelming concern before he dies
    • 22 He appoints his son to succeed him
      • The main task of Solomon is to build the temple
      • All the leaders are to help Solomon in this task
    • 23-26 He appoints the Levites to various temple ministries: construction, gatekeepers, sacrifice gophers, musicians
      • (He transforms the Levitical roles (vv 25-26) because they no longer need to carry the tabernacle)
      • 24 He appoints the Priests and assigns their roles (with the help of Zadok)
      • 25 He appoints the prophesying musicians
      • 26 He appoints the gatekeepers
      • 26 He appoints other officials – especially treasurers
    • The concern for the temple is extended to the whole nation: the army and government
      • David’s kingship and martial leadership here interacts with his temple leadership

King and God’s word interaction

  • The ark
    • 13 David tries to bring the ark to Jerusalem.
      • He consults with the priests and Levites (and all Israel) about this decision,
      • HOWEVER, he fails in carrying out the proper priestly duty. The Levites are not properly consecrated. The ark is brought on a cart and is touched. Result – judgment, death, anger on David’s part.
    • 14 In battle, David inquires of God and then has success
    • 15-16 David brings the ark to Jerusalem
      • This time, he inquires of the Word of God about the ark and has success (he learned his lesson in chapter 14)
  • 22:2-19 Solomon’s succession of David is like Joshua’s succession of Moses

2 Chr 1-9 – Solomon

Outline

  • 1 Solomon succeeds to the thone and asks for wisdom
  • 2 Solomon conscripts labour – including Huram-Abi from Tyre
  • 3 Temple construction
  • 4 Temple furnishings
  • 5 The ark is brought to the temple
  • 6-7 The temple is dedicated
  • Chapter 7 ends with God appearing to Solomon and uttering the chilling words “if you turn away … I will reject this temple I have consecrated for my name”
  • 8 Solomon establishes the temple and the whole land
  • 9 The glory of Solomon
  • Chapter 9 ends with Solomon’s death

Comparison with Kings / Solomon as idealised Messiah

  • The part of Solomon’s reign in which the Chronicler is interested is the building of the temple.
  • Chronicles omits:
    • The judgment between the prostitutes
    • Details of the building of Solomon’s palace
    • His idolatry, foreign wives
    • The rebellions against him
    • His part in the division of the kingdom
  • Chronicles goes into
    • Less detail on the temple construction
    • More detail on the temple furnishings

God’s faithfulness

  • We see here God fulfilling his promise to David in 1 Chr 17, repeatedly referred to (e.g. 2:12, 6:10, 6:15-17, 7:18).
    • The promise to have a son on his throne
    • The promise that his son will build the temple

King and people interaction

  • 1:2-3 All Israel supports Solomon in his task
  • 7:11-22 The continuing blessing of the people through the temple is contingent upon the obedience of both King and people.
  • 7:8-10 A Messianic feast associated with the dedication of the temple
  • 8:9 Solomon does not make slaves of any of the Israelites for the work on the temple.

King and priest interaction

  • Solomon is the new Bezalel – the Judahite who built the tabernacle in the time of Moses.
    • Bezalel is mentioned by name in 1:5, and was mentioned earlier in the genealogies as being from Judah
    • The both make a bronze altar and sanctuary furnishings
    • Similarly, Huram-Abi is the new Oholiab from the tribe of Dan
    • The dedication of the temple is similar to the dedication of the tabernacle – the glory of the Lord comes in
  • 7:11-22 The continuing blessing of the people through the temple is contingent upon the obedience of the King.

King and God’s word interaction

  • 8:12-15 Solomon’s sacrifices are according to the requirements of Moses

2 Chr 10-36 – Divided kingdom to the decree of Cyrus

Comparison with Kings / The idealised Messiah

  • There is much material omitted and added, and this has to do with the concerns of the Chronicler (below). Also, the Chronicler is not interested in any of the kings of the northern kingdom.

Summary of themes

Chapter Outline of reign King and people King and priest (temple) King and God’s word God faithful
NB * indicates a David / Solomon style of leadership
  • Often shown by “Messianic feasts” where all the people come together and feast under the supervision of the king, associated with victory over enemies and/or temple sacrifice.
  • The kings are often called “kings of Israel”, not just of Judah, to emphasise the priority of the house of David over all Israel
  • The king often achieves victory for Israel, and so is their saviour. This is an important theme in the picture of the king.
  • Many kings have a twofold reign – obedience/blessing followed by immediate rebellion/retribution
  • e.g. Rehoboam; he builds Judah and Jerusalem, the true Israelites and Levites flock to him, then he rebels and is attacked by Shishak king of Egypt. This is seen as God’s judgment
  • See outline for others
God is seen as immediately judging the rebellion of king and nation
10-12
  • Rehoboam
  • 10 Rebellion of Israel against Rehoboam
  • 11 The schism is seen to be God’s doing, and the people are purified (the true Israelites come to Judah / Jerusalem)
  • 12 Rehoboam rebels, God judges
  • 10:16 “All Israel” breaks with Rehoboam – this is a bad turn of events!
  • 11:13-17 However, people from every tribe of Israel who are true Israelites (follow the Lord rather than the gods of Jeroboam) return to Judah and Jerusalem and strengthen the king
  • 12:1 The king and “all Israel with him” abandons the law
  • 11:13-17 The Levites side with Rehoboam because Jeroboam has rejected them and the true worship (and Rehoboam has the temple)
  • 11:4 (Shemaiah –> Rehoboam) Rehoboam does not go to war against Israel, because the schism is God’s doing
  • 12:5 (Shemaiah –> Rehoboam) Pronounces God’s retribution (Egypt) against Rehoboam’s rebellion. Rehoboam humbles himself and there is some good in Judah, but there are still dire consequences (many of the treasures are carried off).
  • 10:15 God is faithful to his word to Jeroboam to give him the Israelite kingdom
  • 13
    • Abijah (good)
  • 13:5 Abijah reminds the northern kingdom that God has granted the kingship of all Israel to Judah
  • 13 Abijah calls the northern kingdom back to the true worship of God through the Levites (which is the practice of Judah)
  • 13:18 God grants Abijah success against Israel because they rely on him and they worship him truly
  • 13:5 God’s covenant with David
  • 14-16
    • Asa*
    • 14-15 Asa reforms the kingdom by calling them back to the law and true worship
    • 16 Asa does not trust God but sends the temple treasures to Aram to make an alliance. God gives war (not peace) to Asa and also a disease of the feet
  • 15:9 Large numbers of non-Judahites had come to Judah when they saw that the Lord was with him
  • 15 The whole of Judah swears an oath to worship God truly, at the instigation of Asa
  • 15:11 A Messianic feast associated with temple worship and victory over enemies
  • 14-15 Asa removes foreign altars and high places
  • 15 More reforms: Asa repairs the altar and there is a huge sacrifice
  • 14 Asa commands the people to follow the law
  • 15 (Azariah –> Asa) Encourages Asa to continue with the reform because God is with him
  • 16:7 (Hanani –> Asa) Rebukes Asa for relying on Aram and pronounces God’s retribution (war with Aram)
  • 14:11 God grants Asa success against Israel because they rely on him and call on him
  • 17-20
    • Jehoshaphat*
    • 17 Follows the law and is blessed by God
    • 18 Insists on seeking the counsel of the Lord before going to war
    • (19) Is rebuked for siding with Ahab, and partial wrath is pronounced against him
    • 19 Introduces more reforms – judges and officials
    • 20 A very central chapter – God gives victory to Jehoshaphat because he and the people inquire of God’s word at the temple.
    • (20) Is rebuked again for siding with Ahaziah king of Israel
  • 19 Jehoshaphat introduces officials and judges for all the people, and turns much of Ephraim back to the Lord
  • 20:3-4, 13 When Jehoshaphat seeks the Lord, all of the people of Judah come together to be with him
  • 19:11 When it comes to judging, the final authority is the high priest (Amariah) for all matters concerning the Lord, and the leader of Judah (Zebadiah) for all matters concerning the king
  • 20:5 Jehoshaphat’s prayer to seek God’s will concerning the attacking Moabites and Ammonites is at the temple, which was the plan back in 6:34-35
  • 17 God blesses Jehoshaphat in his early years because he worships God truly and seeks him
  • 17:7-9 Jehoshaphat sends teachers of the law throughout Judah
  • 18:4 (Micaiah –> Jehoshaphat) Jehoshaphat insists on listening to the counsel of the Lord (not of the false prophets) before going to war
  • 19:2 (Jehu –> Jehoshaphat) Rebukes Jehoshaphat for siding with the apostate Ahab, and pronounces partial judgment
  • 20 Jehoshaphat’s first reaction when hearing about the attacking Moabites and Ammonites is to inquire of the Lord
  • 20:14 (Jahaziel –> Jehoshaphat) Encourages Jehoshaphat that God is with them and will fight against the Moabites and Ammonites
  • 20:37 (Eliezer –> Jehoshaphat) Rebukes Jehoshaphat for siding with Ahaziah, and pronounces judgment
  • 18:31 The Lord helps Jehoshaphat in battle because he relies on him
  • 21
    • Jehoram (bad)
  • 21:11 Jehoram leads the whole of Israel astray
    • 21:12 (Elijah –> Jehoram) Rebukes Jehoram and pronounces immediate judgment (disease of the bowels)
  • 21:7 God does not destroy the kingdom even though Jehoram is rebellious, for the sake of his covenant with David
  • 22
    • Ahaziah (bad)
    23-24
    • Joash
    • 23 The intrigue to get Joash on the throne
    • 24:1-16 Joash restores the temple
    • 24:17-27 Joash turns wicked after Jehoiada dies and is rebuked
  • 23:2 The whole of Israel supports Joash on the throne
  • 23-24 Jehoiada the priest, together with the Levites, is actually the one who maintains and controls the throne, for the good of Israel. He schemes to get Joash on the throne, instigates reform of the true worship of the Lord, and advises Joash according to the counsel of the Lord. When Jehoiada dies, Joash becomes evil.
  • 24 Joash’s restoration of the temple is very important
  • 24:20 (Zecharaiah –> Joash) Rebukes Joash for his apostasy and is killed. The immediate judgment is by the Arameans.
  • 23:3 Reference to God’s covenant with David
  • 25
    • 25 Amaziah (half-hearted)
    • 25:4 Amaziah acts in accordance with the law in not putting the sons to death for the sins of their fathers
    • 25:7 (Man of God –> Amaziah) Advises that God is not with the troops Amaziah had hired from the northern kingdom. Amaziah listens to him and dismisses the Ephraimites.
    • 25:15 (a prophet –> Amaziah) Rebukes Amaziah for worshipping other gods and pronounces that God will destroy him
    26
    • Uzziah
    • 26:1-15 Follows God’s word and is blessed
    • 26:16-23 Pride leads to his downfall
    • 26:16-18 The demarcation between king and priest is upheld – it is not right for the king to do the priestly duties. Uzziah tries to burn incense and is immediately punished by leprosy. This means that he is unclean, and therefore excluded entirely from the temple.
  • 26:5 Uzziah gets success as long as he follows the instruction of the Lord
  • 26:16-18 Uzziah does not follow the instruction of the Lord with respect to the Levitical priestly divisions (he burns incense) and so is immediately cursed by leprosy
  • 27
    • 27 Jotham (good – but the people don’t follow him)
  • 27:2 Jotham is a good king, yet the people do not follow him and continue in their corrupt practices. This is surprising and unnerving.
  • 27:3 Jotham rebuilds part of the temple.
  • 28
    • 28 Ahaz (bad – the worst of all) He is attacked severely and appeals to Assyria for help.
  • 28:23 The gods of Damascus are the downfall of Ahaz and of all Israel.
  • 28 Ahaz completely abandons the worship of God and even practises child sacrifice.
  • 28:21, 24 Ahaz gives the temple furnishings as tribute to Aram, and actually shuts the doors of the temple and sets up altars on the street corners of Jerusalem and high places in the towns of Judah. This is ghastly!
  • 28 The result of the worst apostasy yet (Ahaz, without a single redeeming feature) is the worst defeat of all, at the hands of both the Arameans and the northern kingdom.
  • 28:9 (Oded –> the Northern Kingdom) says that even though God is angry with Judah, this does not excuse the northern kingdom’s fierce rage against God’s chosen people. The northern kingdom listens to the prophet, highlighting even further (by contrast) the apostasy of Ahaz.
  • 28:9 Even though God is angry with Judah, this does not excuse the northern kingdom’s fierce rage against God’s chosen people.
  • 29-32
    • Hezekiah*
    • 29-31 Reestablishes temple service and the feasts
    • 32 Leads the people in dependent trust in God when Sennacherib threatens Jerusalem, and God prevails
    • (32) Hezekiah is proud, but repents
  • 30 Once Hezekiah has reestablished the temple sacrifice, he invites all Israel to come and celebrate the Passover. They couriers even go as far as Zebulun, because by this time most of the Northern Kingdom has been wiped out. Although many from the old northern kingdom scorn the invitation, some do come.
  • 30:18 Although the people are not clean according to the strict rules, and the Passover is not celebrated at strictly the right time, Hezekiah prays that God would accept their worship anyway because it was the best they could do. God hears him and “heals” the people.
  • 30:23 The passover is a Messianic feast associated with the rededication of the temple
  • 31:3-4 Hezekiah makes his own contribution for the Levites, and the people do the same.
  • 32:8 The people are strengthened by the confidence of Hezekiah, even though Sennacherib is practising psychological warfare and trying to erode the people’s confidence.
  • 29-31 Hezekiah is a great reformer, acting as a “second Solomon”.
  • He reopens the temple
  • He reestablishes Levitical duties in the temple
    • Priests and sacrifice
    • Musicians
    • Treasurers and other office bearers
  • He reestablishes a covenant with God
  • He removes the defilement of the temple and reconsecrates it
  • He reestablishes the Passover
  • He reestablishes the feasts as set down in the law of Moses, making his own contribution and ordering the people to do the same.
  • 31 The king makes provision for the feasts as set down in the law of Moses
  • 31:21 The king wholeheartedly seeks the Lord
  • 32:20 (Isaiah) Hezekiah and Isaiah cry out to the Lord together – a true and perfect partnership. God hears and achieves the greatest victory ever for Hezekiah
  • 32 God destroys the Assyrian army, as the Israelites trust him
  • 33:1-20
    • Manasseh
    • 33:1-11 Bad – even sets up foreign in the temple
    • 33:12-20 Learns his lesson, repents and restores the temple
  • 33:10 Neither the people nor Manasseh listen to the prophets
  • 33:1-11 Manasseh is as bad as Ahaz. He completely abandons the worship of God and even practises child sacrifice.
  • He even sets up foreign altars and images in the temple itself – terrible!
  • 33:12-17 But he repents and restores the temple and removes the impurity
  • 33:10 The Lord speaks to Manasseh, but he pays no attention. So he is taken prisoner by the Assyrians.
  • 33:13 But he does humble himself, and is blessed.
  • 33:21-24
    • 33:21-24 Amon (bad)
    • 33:22 Amon follows the bad ways of his father Manasseh
    34-35
    • Josiah*
    • 34:1-13 Reforms Israel
    • 34:14-33 Finds the book of the law in the temple
    • 35:1-19 Celebrates the passover again
    • 35:20-27 Disobeys God and dies
  • 34:29 The king reads the newly found book of the law to the people, and renews the covenant between the people and God.
  • 35 The passover is celebrated again, another “Messianic feast”
  • 34-35 From a young age, Josiah reforms worship in Judah and Jerusalem,
  • He repairs the temple
  • He reestablishes Levitical duties in the temple
    • Priests and sacrifice
    • Musicians
    • Treasurers and other office bearers
  • He reestablishes a covenant with God
  • He removes the defilement of the temple and reconsecrates it
  • He reestablishes the Passover
  • 34 Josiah finds the book of the law and humbles himself because of the sin of the people.
  • 34:22 (Huldah –> Josiah) Josiah seeks God’s will through Huldah. She pronounces judgment on Israel, but it is delayed and Josiah will not see it.
  • 35:6, 12 The Passover is celebrated according to the Law of Moses.
  • 35:22 Neco king of Egypt speaks at God’s command but Josiah refuses to listen to him. So he is killed
  • 36:1-4
    • Jehoahaz (captured by king of Egypt)
    36:5-8
    • Jehoiakim (bad, captured by Nebuchadnezzar)
    • 36:7 Because of Jehoiakim’s wickedness, articles from the temple are taken to Babylon
    36:9-10
    • Jehoiachin (bad, captured by Nebuchadnezzar)
    • 36:10 Because of Jehoiachin’s wickedness, more articles from the temple are taken to Babylon
    36:11-21
    • Zedekiah (bad, destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar). Jerusalem beseiged and falls.
  • 36:14 Zedekiah’s wickedness leads to wickedness of all the people
  • 36:14 Zedekiah’s wickedness leads to wickedness of the priests
  • 36:18 The whole temple is destroyed by fire and all the articles from the temple are taken to Babylon because of the wickedness of Zedekiah and all the people.
  • 36:12 (Jeremiah –> Zedekiah) Zedekiah does not listen to Jeremiah and so is beseiged and destroyed.
  • 36:15-19 God sends messengers again and again, but they are mocked so God destroys Jerusalem.
  • 36:22-23
    • The decree of Cyrus for the exiles to return and build a temple.
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